The objective of the common good is the benefit or interest of all and the inclusion of individual diversity. You overcome the possibility of conflict through operational parameters. The framework for harmonizing the interest of individuals and groups with the interest of the larger communities. The Constitution guides establishing norms, traditions, and laws. The genius of the US Constitution is the separation of power within three branches of government and an independent judiciary
Ultimately the common good of any society depends on the individuals or group of individuals who administer the norms, traditions, and laws. The more complex the society, the greater the distance from the common good. This distance creates factions that reinterpret the common good as their prerogative. This always leads to a conflict of interest. When the common good is subordinate to an individual or faction, it is no longer the common good. George Washington in his farewell address cautioned us to the danger.
“The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty.
Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it.”
We find ourselves at this moment. When party and ideology and personal interest are devastating the common good. we look back at the framework where the first amendment to the US Constitution give you protection via “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”